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    Spanish company Ferry Group is to invest €42/US$55.2 million in a project for the production of biomass fuel pellets in Bulgaria. The 3-year project consists of establishing plantations of paulownia trees near the city of Tran. Paulownia is a fast-growing tree used for the commercial production of fuel pellets. Dnevnik - Feb. 20, 2007.

    Hungary's BHD Hõerõmû Zrt. is to build a 35 billion Forint (€138/US$182 million) commercial biomass-fired power plant with a maximum output of 49.9 MW in Szerencs (northeast Hungary). Portfolio.hu - Feb. 20, 2007.

    Tonight at 9pm, BBC Two will be showing a program on geo-engineering techniques to 'save' the planet from global warming. Five of the world's top scientists propose five radical scientific inventions which could stop climate change dead in its tracks. The ideas include: a giant sunshade in space to filter out the sun's rays and help cool us down; forests of artificial trees that would breath in carbon dioxide and stop the green house effect and a fleet futuristic yachts that will shoot salt water into the clouds thickening them and cooling the planet. BBC News - Feb. 19, 2007.

    Archer Daniels Midland, the largest U.S. ethanol producer, is planning to open a biodiesel plant in Indonesia with Wilmar International Ltd. this year and a wholly owned biodiesel plant in Brazil before July, the Wall Street Journal reported on Thursday. The Brazil plant is expected to be the nation's largest, the paper said. Worldwide, the company projects a fourfold rise in biodiesel production over the next five years. ADM was not immediately available to comment. Reuters - Feb. 16, 2007.

    Finnish engineering firm Pöyry Oyj has been awarded contracts by San Carlos Bioenergy Inc. to provide services for the first bioethanol plant in the Philippines. The aggregate contract value is EUR 10 million. The plant is to be build in the Province of San Carlos on the north-eastern tip of Negros Island. The plant is expected to deliver 120,000 liters/day of bioethanol and 4 MW of excess power to the grid. Kauppalehti Online - Feb. 15, 2007.

    In order to reduce fuel costs, a Mukono-based flower farm which exports to Europe, is building its own biodiesel plant, based on using Jatropha curcas seeds. It estimates the fuel will cut production costs by up to 20%. New Vision (Kampala, Uganda) - Feb. 12, 2007.

    The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has decided to use 10% biodiesel in its fleet of public buses. The world's largest city is served by the Toei Bus System, which is used by some 570,000 people daily. Digital World Tokyo - Feb. 12, 2007.

    Fearing lack of electricity supply in South Africa and a price tag on CO2, WSP Group SA is investing in a biomass power plant that will replace coal in the Letaba Citrus juicing plant which is located in Tzaneen. Mining Weekly - Feb. 8, 2007.

    In what it calls an important addition to its global R&D capabilities, Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) is to build a new bioenergy research center in Hamburg, Germany. World Grain - Feb. 5, 2007.

    EthaBlog's Henrique Oliveira interviews leading Brazilian biofuels consultant Marcelo Coelho who offers insights into the (foreign) investment dynamics in the sector, the history of Brazilian ethanol and the relationship between oil price trends and biofuels. EthaBlog - Feb. 2, 2007.

    The government of Taiwan has announced its renewable energy target: 12% of all energy should come from renewables by 2020. The plan is expected to revitalise Taiwan's agricultural sector and to boost its nascent biomass industry. China Post - Feb. 2, 2007.

    Production at Cantarell, the world's second biggest oil field, declined by 500,000 barrels or 25% last year. This virtual collapse is unfolding much faster than projections from Mexico's state-run oil giant Petroleos Mexicanos. Wall Street Journal - Jan. 30, 2007.

    Dubai-based and AIM listed Teejori Ltd. has entered into an agreement to invest €6 million to acquire a 16.7% interest in Bekon, which developed two proprietary technologies enabling dry-fermentation of biomass. Both technologies allow it to design, establish and operate biogas plants in a highly efficient way. Dry-Fermentation offers significant advantages to the existing widely used wet fermentation process of converting biomass to biogas. Ame Info - Jan. 22, 2007.

    Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited is to build a biofuel production plant in the tribal belt of Banswara, Rajasthan, India. The petroleum company has acquired 20,000 hectares of low value land in the district, which it plans to commit to growing jatropha and other biofuel crops. The company's chairman said HPCL was also looking for similar wasteland in the state of Chhattisgarh. Zee News - Jan. 15, 2007.

    The Zimbabwean national police begins planting jatropha for a pilot project that must result in a daily production of 1000 liters of biodiesel. The Herald (Harare), Via AllAfrica - Jan. 12, 2007.

    In order to meet its Kyoto obligations and to cut dependence on oil, Japan has started importing biofuels from Brazil and elsewhere. And even though the country has limited local bioenergy potential, its Agriculture Ministry will begin a search for natural resources, including farm products and their residues, that can be used to make biofuels in Japan. To this end, studies will be conducted at 900 locations nationwide over a three-year period. The Japan Times - Jan. 12, 2007.

    Chrysler's chief economist Van Jolissaint has launched an arrogant attack on "quasi-hysterical Europeans" and their attitudes to global warming, calling the Stern Review 'dubious'. The remarks illustrate the yawning gap between opinions on climate change among Europeans and Americans, but they also strengthen the view that announcements by US car makers and legislators about the development of green vehicles are nothing more than window dressing. Today, the EU announced its comprehensive energy policy for the 21st century, with climate change at the center of it. BBC News - Jan. 10, 2007.

    The new Canadian government is investing $840,000 into BioMatera Inc. a biotech company that develops industrial biopolymers (such as PHA) that have wide-scale applications in the plastics, farmaceutical and cosmetics industries. Plant-based biopolymers such as PHA are biodegradable and renewable. Government of Canada - Jan. 9, 2007.

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Wednesday, January 24, 2007

UPI Poll: biofuels top alternative energy choice

Quicknote renewables
Biofuels and solar energy topped respondents' choices in a UPI-Zogby International poll regarding alternative energy sources in the United States. A total of 6,882 U.S. residents were asked in a Jan. 16-18 Zogby interactive poll to select which alternative energy source would be most useful in the future. They responded as follows:
  • ethanol/biomass (26.7 percent)
  • solar power (22.3 percent)
  • hydroelectric (10.5 percent)
  • wind power (9.9 percent)
  • geothermal (2.3 percent)
Ethanol has grabbed a lot of attention since U.S. President George Bush's State of the Union speech last year when he spoke the country's "addiction to oil". The U.S. President boosted biofuels once again by his address last night.

When asked which type of renewable energy is 'most likely to replace fossil fuels', participants again ranked ethanol/biomass first, with 39.8 percent giving that answer, 10.8% said solar energy and 10.6% hydroelectric.

Still, respondents think there isn't much hope for weaning the United States off oil: 61.1 percent of those asked said less than 25 percent of current fossil fuel energy use would be replaced by renewable energy sources in 10 years.

Consumer perceptions and expectations on alternative energy are playing an increasing role in decision making processes, as more and more (public) companies in the sector face public scrutiny.

Obviously, a clean and efficient energy future depends on diversifying and using as broad a range of renewables as possible. It is not a matter of picking one energy technology over another. The poll does indicate though which alternative energy sectors need to put more efforts in convincing consumers of their potential.
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NGO brings biogas to the poor in India and becomes member of the Chicago Climate Exchange

Andhyodaya, an NGO based in Kerala, India, which promotes biogas production among poor farmers, has become the first Indian member of a United States-based climate exchange that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the chairman of the mart anounced [*.pdf].

The Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) legally binds its members, the majority of which are U.S. corporations who are unable to meet carbon emission reduction targets, to purchase carbon credits from those who have trimmed emissions, or buy offsets from clean energy projects. Members commit to reduce their emissions by six percent by 2010.

By participating in the exchange, Andhyodaya, which operates in the Southern-Indian state of Kerala, would be able to earn revenue by selling credits earned by enabling emission cuts through its small biomethane plants that deliver clean bioenergy to the poor.
"Our goal and mission is to try to engage with companies that can bring us projects and therefore bring credits and dollars to the rural poor of India," Sandor told a news conference. We think we can bring significant value to the rural poor and contribute to reducing global warming." - Richard L. Sandor, CCX's chairman
Andhyodaya's 20,000 small-scale biogas projects have led to cuts equivalent to 40,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide --or the annual emissions from about 8,000 cars. According to Sandor, this represents a market value of approximately €123,000/US$160,000, not bad for a relatively small NGO:
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CCX - which has about 230 members including Ford, Dupont and IBM as well as whole cities such as Chicago - has emerged as one way for the U.S. to try to begin to cut emissions in the absence of federal regulations.

The U.S. has refused to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, which has several similar systems that have been operating for years, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, which allows companies from countries who ratified the Kyoto Protocol to invest in clean energy projects in the South.

Because of a lack of government initiatives on climate change in the U.S., some American companies have gone it alone and are using voluntary mechanisms to cut carbon emissions, on markets like the CCX, in anticipation of future mandatory rules.

"I am delighted that CCX is focusing on projects like this which benefit the poor and also reduce emissions," said R.K. Pachauri, director of environment think-tank The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI).

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EU struggle over mandatory caps on car emissions

Environmentalists have expressed grave concern that the European Commission could be about to drop plans to ensure that new cars produce a quarter less carbon dioxide by 2012. The Commission had been expected this week to announce plans to force car makers to meet this tough target, despite warnings from the industry that it would push up prices and put jobs at risk.

The move would have been a concrete step towards the "post-industrial revolution" the Commission called for two weeks ago, to tackle climate change and to transform the world's car markets (earlier post).

Political support for capping carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from cars quickly grew as European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso and two environment ministers from auto powerhouse Germany publicly backed binding EU limits earlier this week.

But a clash between Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas (earlier post), who supports a binding cap on CO2 emissions of 120g/km by motor vehicles, and Industry Commissioner Guenter Verheugen, who opposes binding legislation, has blocked the proposals from going forward.

The EU has long been saying that cars should emit on average no more than 120g of CO2 per kilometre, though the deadline for reaching the target has been steadily slipping. In 1999, car makers agreed to aim for 140g/km by 2008 - a 25% reduction from the 1995 level of 185g/km - but had reached only 162g/km by 2005.

Open letter
The delay has prompted a coalition of 10 green NGOs to write an open letter [*pdf] to the Commission:
"The 120 g/km target is feasible. It is a fleet-average target that can be met through instruments that require neither individual car makers nor individual cars to meet it. It is not just about deploying complicated and advanced new technologies, it is just as much about using existing technologies and stopping or reversing the trend towards ever-more powerful and faster cars (for example fitting cars with smaller engines is a very effective and cost effective measure).
Failing to announce legislation ensuring that the 120g/km target is met would seriously undermine the credibility of the Commission. It would also mean that the Commission fails to deliver on its first real-world policy following the announcement on 10 January of a greenhouse gas reduction target of at least 20% by 2020."
-- International Friends of Nature, Climate Action Network Europe, Friends of the Earth Europe, European Environmental Bureau, European Public Health Alliance – Environment Network, WWF European Policy Office, BirdLife International, Greenpeace European Unit, CEE Bankwatch Network.
Transport has the potential to knock off course Europe's efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It generates more than one fifth of the overall emissions, and is the only sector where emissions have been dramatically rising in recent years - by 26% between 1990 and 2004.

Some quick facts about EU cars and CO2 emissions:
  • Fiat, Citroen and Renault have reduced CO2 emissions far more than VW, BMW and Volvo (overview per brand)
  • Their success is partly due to selling more efficient diesel cars
  • Manufacturers say there has been "no clear demand" from consumers for fuel-efficiency
  • Some SUVs emit more than 360g of CO2 per kilometre
  • Makers of SUVs and sports cars could be driven out of business by a 120g/km limit
Passenger cars alone account for more than one-tenth of the EU's CO2 emissions. Although the amount of CO2 they produce per kilometre has fallen since 1995, a rise in the number of cars being sold, and the distances driven, has more than compensated for this.

Better engines, better fuel
On Wednesday the European Commission was to have announced two measures, both of which have now been delayed:
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The plan to impose mandatory restrictions on CO2 emissions from passenger cars would have obliged car makers to use technology to make cars more efficient, or to sell cars with smaller engines.

The other measure - a review of the fuel quality directive - would have obliged oil companies to produce fuels that released 10% less CO2 by 2020, taking into account emissions from all stages of the production and consumption process "from well to wheel".

This would provide an incentive for the rapid introduction of second generation biofuels, which are not yet available on an industrial scale.

To complete the package of proposals, the Commission was due to make a statement on existing plans for an "integrated approach" to reducing CO2 emissions from cars, covering things such as taxation, labelling, reducing congestion and changing drivers' behaviour.

Commission spokeswoman Pia Ahrenkilde Hansen said on Tuesday that one reason for the delay was the problem of ensuring coherence between all the various proposals. The measures also have to be consistent with the papers mapping out the proposed low-carbon revolution published on 10 January.

Biofuel debate
One of these papers calls for biofuels to have a 10% share of the fuel market by 2020, but the proposed change to the fuel quality directive "results in completely different numbers", according to Peter Tjan, secretary general of the European Petroleum Industry Association.

Jos Dings of the Transport and Environment pressure group foresees a struggle between two different approaches to biofuels.

The 10% share can currently be achieved by production of any biofuels, including varieties whose manufacture entails sizeable CO2 emissions. This approach is favoured by the agricultural lobby.

By contrast, the amended fuel quality directive would put a premium on second-generation biofuels because these allow a big reduction in net CO2 emissions per unit of energy contained in the fuel.

Both the fuel and car industries warn of higher costs to the consumer if the Commission's plans go ahead.

Sigrid de Vries of the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) says one study has estimated the cost of a small car could increase by between 2,500 and 4,000 euros if the 120g/km limit is enforced - though other studies are less pessimistic.

Other measures, such as reducing traffic congestion, would achieve the same reduction in emissions far more cheaply, she says.

EU Summit in March
But Jos Dings argues that all available mechanisms for reducing emissions from transport have to be grasped with both hands. The 120g/km limit is absolutely key, he says, because it promises such a big reduction in emissions - 25% within a few years.

He points out that any increase in the cost of the car would be more than offset over its lifetime by savings on fuel, thanks to the engine's greater efficiency.

Stephan Singer, head of climate and energy policy for WWF in Brussels, also hopes that Mr Barroso will not waver, but is a little less gloomy than Jos Dings.

The key task for the Commission now, he points out, is to ensure that the next EU summit in March supports the big shift to a low-carbon economy, outlined on 10 January, with its headline goal of a minimum 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020.

If the prime ministers and presidents sign up to that, he says, tough action to rein in emissions from two sectors outside the EU's carbon emissions trading scheme - transport and construction - will become inevitable.

Germany's positions
Europe's largest car making nation plays a key role in the debate, but here too key players have clashed: "Voluntary curbs by the industry have failed. Now we need clear and legally binding targets," Environment Minister Sigmar Gabriel, a Social Democrat in conservative Angela Merkel's coalition cabinet, told the EU parliament.

"The automobile industry must make a greater contribution to lowering emissions," SPD Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee told reporters, adding: "We will not be able to get around having binding legal limits."

But he proposed having different ceilings for different classes of cars so that a blanket set of rules would not put the squeeze on German premium carmakers such as BMW , Audi , DaimlerChrysler or Porsche .

Conservative Economy Minister Michael Glos also opposed blanket rules and was more circumspect about EU limits: "We must ensure that the Commission does not deliver targets on reducing car emissions that would be tough for Germany to fulfill," he told an energy conference in Berlin.

Carmakers have urged Brussels not to impose CO2 limits, saying politicians had failed to shift taxation to foster clean cars at a time that consumers did not want to pay more for fuel efficient cars and had no financial incentives to do so.

More information:
European Federation for Transport and Environment: NGOs call on Barroso to legislate on cars and climate - Jan. 24, 2007.
European Federation for Transport and Environment: Regulating fuel efficiency of new cars (background briefing) [*pdf]
EUPolitix: EU deadlock on car emissions - Jan. 23, 2007
Reuters: Momentum grows for EU cap on cars CO2 output - Jan. 23, 2007
Reuters: Germany seeks binding rules for cars' CO2 emissions - Jan. 23, 2007
Euractiv: 'Les constructeurs travaillent à développer des autos plus sobres' - Laurent Masson, Moteur Nature, Open letter, - Jan. 24, 2007
New Scientist: Europe mulls mandatory emissions limits for cars - Jan. 22, 2007

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Bush's State of the Union: "twenty in ten", biofuel imports

Roughly two weeks after the EU launched its ambitious new energy strategy, President Bush held his State of the Union address which put energy security high on the agenda. It contained the proposal to cut back 20% (2 million barrels) of America's gasoline consumption over the next 10 years. This 'twenty in ten' goal is to be achieved by a program that entails a set of initiatives, including the import of biofuels, US$1.6 billion of additional new funding over ten years for energy innovation, including bioenergy research, energy efficiency grants, and US$2 billion in loans for cellulosic ethanol plants. Mr Bush's speech contained no major initiative on climate change.

A quick overview of the ways in which the President hopes to cut back America's 'addiction to oil':

Reducing Gasoline Consumption Through The Growth Of Alternative Fuel Sources
The President's Plan Calls For Facilitating The Growth Of Renewable And Alternative Fuel Sources By Increasing The Size And Expanding The Scope Of The Current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS).

* The RFS, established by the President and Congress in the Energy Policy Act of 2005, has contributed to the rapid acceleration of the development and use of renewable fuels. Significant ongoing technological advances have made it possible to increase and expand the standard to displace even larger volumes of gasoline.
* Under current law, fuel blenders must use 7.5 billion gallons of renewable fuels in 2012.
* Under the President's proposal, the fuel standard will be set at 35 billion gallons of renewable and alternative fuels in 2017. This will displace 15 percent of projected annual gasoline use in 2017. The President's proposal will also increase the scope of the current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), expanding it to an Alternative Fuel Standard (AFS).
o The Alternative Fuel Standard will include sources such as corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, methanol, butanol, hydrogen, and alternative fuels.
* The increased standard will contain multiple "safety valves."
o The EPA Administrator and the Secretaries of Agriculture and Energy will have authority to waive or modify the standard if they deem it necessary, and the new fuel standard will include an automatic "safety valve" to protect against unforeseen increases in the prices of alternative fuels or their feedstocks.

* American Technology And Innovation Will Lead To Energy Security. President Bush believes our scientists, farmers, entrepreneurs, and industry leaders will continue to lead the world in developing and investing in cutting-edge technology, infrastructure, and farming methods. Advances in many fields will play an important role, such as continued improvement in crop yields, optimization of crops and cellulosic materials as fuel feedstock, and cost reduction in the production of cellulosic ethanol and other alternative fuels. The increased and expanded fuel standard creates a tremendous incentive for research, development, and private investment into alternatives to oil.

* Global Production Of Alternative Fuels Helps Us Reach Our Goal And Increases Our Energy Security. The President expects most of the expanded fuel standard to be met with domestically-produced alternative fuels. However, importing alternative fuels also increases the diversity of fuel sources, which further increases our energy security.

Note: this is an important indication for the Biopact. The US does not a priori block biofuel imports from the South, even though no word is said on lifting the US$0.54/gallon tariff on ethanol, nor on cutting back the heavy subsidies for domestic biofuels.

* The President's Plan Enables America To Lead The World To Energy Security. By establishing such a visible and ambitious fuel standard, America's global leadership will help encourage our friends and allies to consider similar policies. Actions by America's friends and allies to increase their production of oil and oil alternatives, diversify their supplies, reduce their consumption, and increase their oil reserves will enhance the energy security of America and the rest of the world. Conversely, foreign actions that undermine free, open, and competitive markets for trade and investment in energy supplies diminish the energy security of America and the world. This is why America opposes the political manipulation of oil and gas exports:
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Reducing Gasoline Consumption Through Increasing Vehicle Efficiency
The President's CAFE Plan Will Reduce Gasoline Consumption By Up To 8.5 Billion Gallons Per Year In 2017. The President's plan calls for reforming and increasing CAFE standards for cars, and for further increasing light truck and SUV standards. The President believes new technologies can be deployed to significantly improve fuel economy without impacting safety. Reducing projected consumption by up to 8.5 billion gallons in 2017 means a 5 percent reduction in projected gasoline consumption in that year. The fuel efficiency standard will have even larger benefits later, when consumers replace even more of the auto fleet with purchases of the more efficient new vehicles. These amounts are based on an assumption that on average, fuel efficiency standards for both light trucks and passenger cars are increased 4 percent per year, beginning in Model Year 2010 for cars and Model Year 2012 for light trucks. Given the changing nature of the marketplace for both cars and light trucks, the Secretary of Transportation will determine the actual standard and fuel savings in a flexible rulemaking process.

* Congress Must Reform CAFE For Passenger Cars. The Administration has twice increased CAFE standards for light trucks using an attribute-based method. An attribute-based system (for example, a size-based system) reduces the risk that vehicle safety is compromised, helps preserve consumer choice, and helps spread the burden of compliance across all product lines and manufacturers. Congress should authorize the Secretary of Transportation to apply the same kind of attribute-based method to passenger cars.

* Congress Should Not Legislate A Particular Numeric Fuel Economy Standard. The Secretary of Transportation should be given the authority to set the fuel standard, based on cost/benefit analysis, using sound science, and without impacting safety.

* The President's Plan Incorporates Flexibility To Minimize Consumer Costs And Increase Consumer Benefits. The plan will enable auto companies to increase fuel economy at the lowest possible cost to consumers by building flexibility into the CAFE standard for both cars and light trucks, such as giving companies the opportunity to buy and sell CAFE credits.

Reduce Traffic Congestion, Help Save Fuel, And Reduce Commute Times.
In 2003, drivers in America's 85 most congested urban areas experienced 3.7 billion hours of travel delay and wasted 2.3 billion gallons of fuel, costing a total of $63 billion.

* The President's Budget Redirects DOT Funds To A New $175 Million Highway Congestion Initiative For State And Local Governments To Demonstrate Innovative Ideas For Curbing Congestion. These ideas include congestion pricing, commuter transit services, commitments from employers to expand work schedule flexibility, and faster deployment of real-time traffic information. In one year, this wasted fuel accounts for more than 20 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions.

Stepping Up Domestic Oil Production In Environmentally Sensitive Ways
The President Calls For Stepping Up Domestic Oil Production In Environmentally Sensitive Ways By:

* Continuing to support Congressional action to authorize environmentally responsible oil and gas exploration in a small area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge located in northern Alaska, which could produce as much as 1 million barrels of oil per day – Congress reserved this small area after the late 1970s oil shocks to help prevent future ones.
* Continuing to work with Congress to develop legislation to encourage investments in refinery capacity.
* Continuing to encourage all parties to resolve remaining issues regarding the Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline.

Doubling The Current Capacity Of The Strategic Petroleum Reserve
The President Proposes Doubling The Current Capacity Of The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) To 1.5 Billion Barrels By 2027. The SPR's purpose is to provide the United States with an emergency inventory of oil, an insurance policy in the event of a severe supply disruption, such as from a natural disaster or a terrorist attack in the energy supply chain. Doubling the SPR alone will provide approximately 97 days of net oil import protection, enhancing America's ability to respond to potential oil disruptions.

* The SPR Is Currently At 691 Million Barrels And, Due To Increased Consumption, This Represents Only 55 Days Of Net Oil Imports. In 1985, the SPR, with 493 million barrels of oil, represented 118 days of net oil imports.

Energy Security Will Be Further Enhanced By:

* Increasing The Transportation Sector's Energy Diversity. Increasing renewable and alternative fuels used in automobiles from 3 percent in 2006 to 15 percent in 2017 can give drivers a built-in defense against supply disruptions and high gasoline prices.

* Increasing The Supply Of Oil Alternatives And Reducing Oil Demand. The President's plan will reduce our oil consumption by 10 percent in 2017, or 2 million barrels per day. Increasing the supply of oil alternatives and reducing oil demand could slow the growth of oil prices and lower the price over time, increasing our energy security.

* Building Resilience Through Doubling The Current Capacity Of The Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Uninterrupted oil supply is critical to our energy security. Increasing oil reserves strengthens our ability to respond to oil shortages and reduces our vulnerability to terrorist attacks on energy supplies and infrastructure.

Funding For Advanced Energy Technologies that Provide Clean, Lower Carbon Energy for Homes And Businesses
The 2008 budget includes nearly $2.7 billion for the Advanced Energy Initiative, an increase of 26 percent above the 2007 request and 53 percent above 2006. The 2008 budget provides $179 million for the President's Biofuels Initiative, an increase of $29 million (19 percent) compared to the 2007 budget. The President's Biofuels Initiative aims to accelerate cost reduction and commercial development of cellulosic ethanol, which can be made from abundant biomass materials, including agricultural waste and forest residues, and from dedicated energy crops such as switchgrass.

The President's Farm Bill Proposal Will Include More Than $1.6 Billion Of Additional New Funding Over Ten Years For Energy Innovation, Including Bio-Energy Research, Energy Efficiency Grants, And $2 Billion In Loans For Cellulosic Ethanol Plants.

More information:
White House: Twenty In Ten: Strengthening America's Energy Security - Jan. 23, 2007

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