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    Spanish company Ferry Group is to invest €42/US$55.2 million in a project for the production of biomass fuel pellets in Bulgaria. The 3-year project consists of establishing plantations of paulownia trees near the city of Tran. Paulownia is a fast-growing tree used for the commercial production of fuel pellets. Dnevnik - Feb. 20, 2007.

    Hungary's BHD Hõerõmû Zrt. is to build a 35 billion Forint (€138/US$182 million) commercial biomass-fired power plant with a maximum output of 49.9 MW in Szerencs (northeast Hungary). Portfolio.hu - Feb. 20, 2007.

    Tonight at 9pm, BBC Two will be showing a program on geo-engineering techniques to 'save' the planet from global warming. Five of the world's top scientists propose five radical scientific inventions which could stop climate change dead in its tracks. The ideas include: a giant sunshade in space to filter out the sun's rays and help cool us down; forests of artificial trees that would breath in carbon dioxide and stop the green house effect and a fleet futuristic yachts that will shoot salt water into the clouds thickening them and cooling the planet. BBC News - Feb. 19, 2007.

    Archer Daniels Midland, the largest U.S. ethanol producer, is planning to open a biodiesel plant in Indonesia with Wilmar International Ltd. this year and a wholly owned biodiesel plant in Brazil before July, the Wall Street Journal reported on Thursday. The Brazil plant is expected to be the nation's largest, the paper said. Worldwide, the company projects a fourfold rise in biodiesel production over the next five years. ADM was not immediately available to comment. Reuters - Feb. 16, 2007.

    Finnish engineering firm Pöyry Oyj has been awarded contracts by San Carlos Bioenergy Inc. to provide services for the first bioethanol plant in the Philippines. The aggregate contract value is EUR 10 million. The plant is to be build in the Province of San Carlos on the north-eastern tip of Negros Island. The plant is expected to deliver 120,000 liters/day of bioethanol and 4 MW of excess power to the grid. Kauppalehti Online - Feb. 15, 2007.

    In order to reduce fuel costs, a Mukono-based flower farm which exports to Europe, is building its own biodiesel plant, based on using Jatropha curcas seeds. It estimates the fuel will cut production costs by up to 20%. New Vision (Kampala, Uganda) - Feb. 12, 2007.

    The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has decided to use 10% biodiesel in its fleet of public buses. The world's largest city is served by the Toei Bus System, which is used by some 570,000 people daily. Digital World Tokyo - Feb. 12, 2007.

    Fearing lack of electricity supply in South Africa and a price tag on CO2, WSP Group SA is investing in a biomass power plant that will replace coal in the Letaba Citrus juicing plant which is located in Tzaneen. Mining Weekly - Feb. 8, 2007.

    In what it calls an important addition to its global R&D capabilities, Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) is to build a new bioenergy research center in Hamburg, Germany. World Grain - Feb. 5, 2007.

    EthaBlog's Henrique Oliveira interviews leading Brazilian biofuels consultant Marcelo Coelho who offers insights into the (foreign) investment dynamics in the sector, the history of Brazilian ethanol and the relationship between oil price trends and biofuels. EthaBlog - Feb. 2, 2007.

    The government of Taiwan has announced its renewable energy target: 12% of all energy should come from renewables by 2020. The plan is expected to revitalise Taiwan's agricultural sector and to boost its nascent biomass industry. China Post - Feb. 2, 2007.

    Production at Cantarell, the world's second biggest oil field, declined by 500,000 barrels or 25% last year. This virtual collapse is unfolding much faster than projections from Mexico's state-run oil giant Petroleos Mexicanos. Wall Street Journal - Jan. 30, 2007.

    Dubai-based and AIM listed Teejori Ltd. has entered into an agreement to invest €6 million to acquire a 16.7% interest in Bekon, which developed two proprietary technologies enabling dry-fermentation of biomass. Both technologies allow it to design, establish and operate biogas plants in a highly efficient way. Dry-Fermentation offers significant advantages to the existing widely used wet fermentation process of converting biomass to biogas. Ame Info - Jan. 22, 2007.

    Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited is to build a biofuel production plant in the tribal belt of Banswara, Rajasthan, India. The petroleum company has acquired 20,000 hectares of low value land in the district, which it plans to commit to growing jatropha and other biofuel crops. The company's chairman said HPCL was also looking for similar wasteland in the state of Chhattisgarh. Zee News - Jan. 15, 2007.

    The Zimbabwean national police begins planting jatropha for a pilot project that must result in a daily production of 1000 liters of biodiesel. The Herald (Harare), Via AllAfrica - Jan. 12, 2007.

    In order to meet its Kyoto obligations and to cut dependence on oil, Japan has started importing biofuels from Brazil and elsewhere. And even though the country has limited local bioenergy potential, its Agriculture Ministry will begin a search for natural resources, including farm products and their residues, that can be used to make biofuels in Japan. To this end, studies will be conducted at 900 locations nationwide over a three-year period. The Japan Times - Jan. 12, 2007.

    Chrysler's chief economist Van Jolissaint has launched an arrogant attack on "quasi-hysterical Europeans" and their attitudes to global warming, calling the Stern Review 'dubious'. The remarks illustrate the yawning gap between opinions on climate change among Europeans and Americans, but they also strengthen the view that announcements by US car makers and legislators about the development of green vehicles are nothing more than window dressing. Today, the EU announced its comprehensive energy policy for the 21st century, with climate change at the center of it. BBC News - Jan. 10, 2007.

    The new Canadian government is investing $840,000 into BioMatera Inc. a biotech company that develops industrial biopolymers (such as PHA) that have wide-scale applications in the plastics, farmaceutical and cosmetics industries. Plant-based biopolymers such as PHA are biodegradable and renewable. Government of Canada - Jan. 9, 2007.

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Monday, June 19, 2006

Small is beautiful: Tuvalu bets on bioenergy, before disappearing

Small island states are the first to experience the effects of global warming in a very tangible way. The nation of Tuvalu, a micro-state counting 9 atolls in the South Pacific, is the first to face the tragic fate of gradually disappearing because of rising ocean levels. It may take less than 5 decades.

But before the announced tragedy becomes a reality, the 11,000 strong nation wants to send a clear message to the world: invest in clean and renewable energies now.

Tuvalu itself has launched a "Small is beautiful" campaign, to set the example. Its main objective: becoming energy independent through biofuels and biomass. Remote island states suffer more than anyone under high oil prices, because fuels have to be shipped over great distances to islands with small populations. And in the case of Tuvalu, dependence on foreign oil is quasi-total. CO2 from fossil fuels is largely responsible for Tuvalu's fate, so symbolically speaking it would be absurd for the micro-state to import more of it. It is instead taking a U-turn.

But how then is such a small, remote, but paradisiacal nation ever going to become energy independent?

The "Small is beautiful" campaign gives itself 10 years to become self-sufficient in energy matters. The idea was conceived by Gilliane le Gallic, known for her beautiful but disturbing documentary "Nuages au Paradis" (Clouds over Paradise), about the grim future of the island state.
The plan now is to turn Tuvalu into a model of sustainability, covering each imaginable sector of life on the island from water and sanitation, to energy, biodiversity, beaches and tourism. No renewable energy technology will be left unused, from wind, to solar water heating.

Biofuels and bioenergy

Fanny Héros, who leads the cultural component of the campaign, which finds its main staff at the Tuvaly Maritime Training Institute, says that the project "will be very focused on biomass and bioenergy, with biodigesters producing biogas from human, animal and agricultural waste-streams".
"A biodiesel production unit will use abundant coconut oil". Two hectares of coconut plantation would satisfy all the demand for marine diesel (boats are Tuvalu's main mode of transport, and they're used heavily by tourism). Moreover, the same plantation will also cover 20% of the domestic electricity need, either using coco-diesel in generators or coconut shells for combustion.
Other, more solid biological waste streams will be turned into pellets, ready to be burned at a biomass plant.

A showroom for sustainable development, in the middle of the Pacific

"The idea is to turn Tuvalu into a pilot atoll", Fanny Héros adds. We are experimenting with new technologies to grow biomass in salty environments, because much of our land has suffered under saltification. We're even exploring the idea of using coral reefs as bases to grow energy. "Until now, Tuvalu was a victim of forces beyond its own control, now we're turning these forces into our advantage, and we'll show the world what's possible".

Without precedent amongst small island states, this ambitious project is supported by French institutions (Fonds Pacific, French Embassy in Fiji). Both the Asian Development Bank, and the PIGGAREP program, a United Nations initiative to reduce carbon-emissions in 10 Pacific island states, including Tuvalu, are impressed and wish it could be duplicated in all Pacific nations.

Novethic, media for sustainable development.

Interesting side-news: EU Chief Barosso receives the ironic "Tuvalu Palme d'Or" for his committment not to fight global warming.

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Electricité de France to launch IPO of "EDF Renewables"

Quicknote: bioenergy business
According to 'Les Echos', the board of Électricité de France, one of the world's largest energy conglomerates, has decided to introduce one of its daughter companies, EDF Énergies Nouvelles, to the stock exchange. A third of the capital would be on offer to the public.
The company is valued at one billion €uros, which comes down to 8 to 10 times its EBITDA, and 5 times its revenue. EDF Énergies Nouvelles is specialized in wind, solar, geothermal and biomass energy.
Voilà Finances and Forbes.
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Second generation biofuels get a boost by Green Energy Resources IPO

Quicknote: bioenergy business
Green Energy Resources To Launch First Wood Biomass IPO

Green Energy Resources(Inc.) (GRGR) plans to launch the first wood biomass IPO on the London Aim Market. Wood cellulose is a potentially larger ingredient to ethanol and biodiesel fuel production than corn. Green Energy Resources has been working toward a London AIM listing since December of 2005. The company is an international supplier of wood biomass for clean coal technology, gasification, biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) as well as direct burn energy to power plants. The company has access to over 30 million tons of wood, according to CEO, Joseph Murray and has recently hired a CFO to accelerate the timetable.

Alan Greenspan testifying before a US Senate Committee on June 7, stated corn based ethanol" would only have a limited role" and" its ability to replace gasoline is limited at best". Greenspan said alternative biomass feedstocks such as wood, were ’’cheaper". A 2005 scientific breakthrough utilizing cellulostic fiber discovered at the College of Environmental Science in Syracuse, New York has thrust woodchips and woodfiber to the forefront of the ethanol production equation of the biofuels industry. President Bush in recent months has touted woodchips as a key to biofuels production in the United States.

For a Free Newsletter and more information, go to http://www.OTCReporter.com.

To read the complete release, go to http://www.CybeRelease.com/grgr61906.htm.

CybeRelease Gainers are U.S. Energy Systems, Inc. (Nasdaq: USEY), FSI International, Inc. (Nasdaq: FSII), Align Technology, Inc. (Nasdaq: ALGN), Ceragon Networks Ltd. (Nasdaq: CRNT), OXiGENE, Inc. (Nasdaq: OXGN), Business Objects S.A. (Nasdaq: BOBJ), Sirius Satellite Radio Inc. (Nasdaq: SIRI) and Focus Media Holding Limited (Nasdaq: FMCN).

CybeRelease Decliners are Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: SGMO), China Medical Technologies, Inc. (Nasdaq: CMED), 1-800 Contacts, Inc. (Nasdaq: CTAC), Arch Capital Group Ltd. (Nasdaq: ACGL), DOV Pharmaceutical, Inc. (Nasdaq: DOVP), DXP Enterprises, Inc. (Nasdaq: DXPE), OmniVision Technologies, Inc. (Nasdaq: OVTI) and Finisar Corporation (Nasdaq: FNSR).

Information, opinions and analysis contained herein are based on sources believed to be reliable, but no representation, expressed or implied, is made as to its accuracy, completeness or correctness. The opinions contained herein reflect our current judgment and are subject to change without notice. We accept no liability for any losses arising from an investor’s reliance on or use of this report. This report is for information purposes only, and is neither a solicitation to buy nor an offer to sell securities. A third party has hired and paid CybeRelease $500.00 for the publication of this report. Certain information included herein is forward-looking within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including, but not limited to, statements concerning manufacturing, marketing, growth, and expansion. Such forward-looking information involves important risks and uncertainties that could affect actual results and cause them to differ materially from expectations expressed herein. We have no ownership of equity, no representation and do no trading of any kind.


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Long-term study shows driving on ethanol consistently cheaper than gasoline - Brazil

The debate about whether first generation biofuels make economic sense or not continues. Earlier, we reported that biodiesel and ethanol made from bad energy crops such as corn or soy, are not sustainable.

But good energy crops, such as sugar cane or cassava, do make sense, even if they're used in their "first generation" guise. This is the conclusion of a long term study about ethanol economics carried out in Brazil. Brazil is the only country where biofuels are used on a massive scale, and it has the advantage of hindsight, with years of experience in the sector.

The study compared prices of ethanol ("álcool") with those of gasoline over a period of five consecutive years (july 2001 - april 2006). It then carefully screened the actual energy content of punctually collected batches of ethanol available at the pump (as is well known ethanol has an energy content ranging between 60 and 70% of that of gasoline). Finally, analysing the average kilometres per litre (mpg) for commonly used flex-fuel vehicles (such as the Volkswagen Golf and the Chevrolet Celta), they calculated whether driving on ethanol actually makes a difference for the consumer.

The result was clear: only in 4 months out of 58, it would have been cheaper to use gasoline. In other words, generally speaking, consumers are consistently better off driving on ethanol. The study does not indicate how big the savings in monetary terms actually were, but judging from the available numbers, it must be between 5-10%.

June 16, Estudo mostra que abastecer carro com álcool está mais vantajoso., Correio do Estado

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Biofuels sector held back by red tape - Sri Lanka

Quicknote: bioenergy economics
Here at the BioPact we analyse what's going on with green energy all over the developing world. Often, we come accross stories about the greater need for financial instruments to allow small-scale biofuel producers to play a role in the market. The science is there, the potential is there, but management structures and access to capital often lack.

The Bio-Energy Association of Sri Lanka (BEASL) points to exactly this problem, and asks for government intervention to draft a national plan to disburse loans among the small industrialists who need to invest in Bio Energy generation. At present most banks allocate loans to recognised industrialists only, who have good bank records. We do not need this type of lending system, said Mr.Jayasinghe of BEASL. Sri Lanka faces energy and financial crisis due to fuel imports. The Ceylon Electricity Board also faces financial crisis. But there is no immediate and permanent solution to overcome this problem, he said.

Maybe the Sri Lankan legistlators should look to Argentina. As we reported earlier in our quicknotes about biofuels in the Hispanic world, that country has just passed a great (albeit controversial) Biofuels bill, which tackles the problem of financing small-scale producers. Argentina's government takes a "bottom-up" approach, supporting local farmers to form associations and cooperatives; it also created a fiscal regime to stimulate smallholder's participation in the market, and it has launched a tech-transfer program to reach out to those who have difficulty in acquiring (knowledge about) the latest bio-energy technologies.

According to the available data the Bio Energy Association believes the biofuels sector could produce 50 percent of the total demand of the electricity in a reasonable time frame.

Mr.Jayasinghe said that BEASL made its fresh proposals to the government to promote bio-energy in Sri Lanka.

The government has accepted our proposal and the cabinet of Ministers also made two important decisions on bio-energy, he said. The government has accepted Gliricidia sepium, which is the preferred species of Short Rotation Coppicing (SRC) fuel wood for energy , has been declared as the Fourth National Crop in addition to Tea, Rubber and Coconut. The government made another decision and approved development tariff for power generation using wood.

Wood is a critical component of the total energy balance of many countries within Asia, being close to 70% of the total national demand for Sri Lanka and Bangladesh and 30% for India. It is relatively recently that national energy policies have seriously accepted that fuel wood-based energy production can provide an economically viable alternative to expensive oil imports as well as providing a useful source of income to farmers and commercial growers.

Sri Lanka has already embarked on a field-testing programme of the production capabilities of short-term rotation crops in a range of sites under a EU funded research programme "Sustainable Supply of Fuel wood to meet Sri Lanka's Energy Needs". Additional studies have been conducted by the Coconut Research Institute, who are interested in a more efficient use of the site through under planting with fast growing leguminous tree species both for the production of energy crops and for green manure.

The objective of our project is to make use of the Sri Lanka experience as a central plank and to bring together other researchers and workers from neighbouring countries to exchange their observations on such issues as, the production levels and economics of fast-growing trees for biomass production,

Lessons learnt in developing this activity by farmers groups and out growers,the social and developmental issues arising from the encouragement of energy plantations as a livelihood activity and the utilisation of waste agricultural material for energy production, practical and economic factors.

Land use maps in Sri Lanka show the current and potential suitability for fuel wood plantations within chena land, abandoned tea estates, grass land or other derelict land and participation with communities in strategies that are appropriate for fuel wood production in these areas, and which they endorse as their own.

According to the association, nearly 13 investors have shown their interest to enter bio-energy generation.

‘ But we have some barriers to overcome, said Mr.Jayasinghe at present the Electricity Board cannot accept additional energy due to the lack of capacity in some of their sub-stations in various areas. However in some areas, the CEB can accept electricity from the private developers, he said.

The BEASL said the CEB must overcome their problems, if the CEB wants to take additional energy into their national grid, Mr.Jayasinghe noted.

The BEASL said the promotion of bio energy would boost employment opportunities in the agricultural sector. ‘it gives additional income to the farmers , when they grow fuel wood in their fields, Mr.Jayasinghe said.

Asian Tribune.

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First generation biofuels not sustainable

As biofuels gain momentum as viable alternatives to petroleum-based fuels, Oregon researchers are sounding a word of caution. Biodiesel and ethanol are good short-term solutions to curbing America's oil addiction, they say, but they are not sustainable over the long haul.
Growing crops such as corn and soybeans — traditional feedstocks — for biofuels production is energy- and water-intensive. And with limited farmlands available, feedstock production for fuel would have to supplant food production.

Here at the BioPact we consider biofuels based on low yielding crops, such as those used in the U.S. and Europe, to be "first generation" biofuels. "Second generation" biofuels would be cellulosic ethanol and synthetic biodiesel - using crop residues and organic waste streams from agriculture and forestry. Whereas "third generation" biofuels would be second generation biofuels but based on crops and agro-residues from the tropics, processed in high-tech biorefineries. Environmentally and economically speaking, they can provide the most sustainable kind of biofuel.

Biofuels could provide 37 percent of U.S. transport fuel within the next 25 years, according to a new report by the Worldwatch Institute, a Washington, D.C.-based environmental advocacy group.

But “there’s never going to be enough cropland to replace all the petroleum we use’’ with biofuels, said Jan Auyong, an Oregon State University professor.

In response, Oregon researchers, business leaders, and state officials submitted a proposal for the formation of the Oregon Clean Energy Center for research.

The proposed center would centralize efforts under way around the state to develop substitutes for fossil fuel-based materials used in building products and transportation.

“I’m worried that people are promoting biodiesel without really looking at the life-cycle costs,’’ said Gail Achterman, a commissioner with the Oregon Transportation Commission and a key author of the proposal. “I doubt that people will feel good about replacing foreign imported (petroleum) oil with imported palm oil.’’

Oregon researchers have already begun to develop a whole suite of biofuels that use biomass from agriculture and forest industry waste — in plentiful supply in Oregon — to supplement seed crop production.

Like seed crops, leftover stems and leaves and woody materials can be broken down into their component sugars and starches for biofuels production.

Using biomass to make biofuels “is already very economically feasible in the U.S. and especially in the Northwest,’’ said Larry Benford, an engineering consultant with Parker, Messana & Associates, a Federal Way, Wash.-based firm that manages clean-energy investments.

“We have huge assets, a huge feedstock in terms of land mass’’ for creating a supply stream of woody undergrowth, Benford said.

Oregon produces almost 4.5 million tons of forest residue per year as part of forest-thinning efforts called for by the federal Healthy Forest Initiative, passed in 2003, according to a recent study by engineering firm CH2M Hill. And about 62,000 tons of wood waste from sawmills go into landfills each year in Oregon, according to the study.

“A lot of the clean-energy focus in the proposal is realizing we need to transition to a society that is closing loops on production,’’ said John Bolte, head of the bioresource engineering department at Oregon State University.

Most of the 1 million gallons of biodiesel currently produced in Oregon by SeQuential-Pacific Biodiesel are made in a sustainable manner with waste vegetable oil from the food industry. But restaurant grease is in limited supply.

The remainder of the state’s biodiesel is shipped in by other suppliers from the Midwest where oil seed crops are grown and turned into oil for fuel production. Any additional demand for fuels will be met by further imports or by in-state production of seed crops.

The Clean Energy Center proposal is “taking advantage of these (forest) waste materials that have some very valuable molecules in them and figuring out economically productive ways to turn those into fuels,’’ Bolte said.

The proposal is one of a handful of finalists submitted to the Oregon Innovation Council with the hope of being designated a new “signature research center’’ by the state Legislature.

In 2005, the state Legislature charged the Innovation Council with creating several new signature research centers by 2010 to translate research into commercial applications. The state’s first signature research center, the Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute, was created in 2005 by the Innovation Council.

“We’re looking at a wide range of opportunities, with a broad base of established work that is already contributing to the Oregon economy in a significant way,’’ said Rich Linton, vice president for research and graduate studies at the University of Oregon and a member of the Innovation Council’s proposal evaluation committee.

“Certainly the clean-energy area is an important one and will receive serious consideration,’’ Linton said.

Corvalis Gazett Times.

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Energy justice: the high cost of electricity in rural areas

Here at the BioPact we're concerned with the social aspects of energy, especially as they relate to access to energy in the developing world. The following case, from Botswana, illustrates a very simple but devastating vicious circle in which those living in energy poverty and the governments that try to change the situation, are trapped. Biofuels are the answer, but some must first be convinced of the message (they will, sooner or later).

The CEO of the parastatal Citizen Entrepreneur Development Agency (CEDA), Dr Thapelo Matsheka laments that it is expensive to take projects to remote areas due to high utility prices. "Service provision has proved to be difficult in remote areas. There is need for a review of capital investment to accelerate rural development." He points out that it is almost financially unviable to approve a remotely located business that will require CEDA to provide facilities that do not enhance the development of the business. Matsheka was at pains to reveal that buying expensive electrical equipment affects business proposals. He said it costs P750,000 to install a transformer in remote areas.

So the equation is: no electricity in the rural areas means no business, no business means no development; and if there's no development in the rural areas, they won't attract a lot of investment in basic business sectors, which in turn makes the region marginal for investments in energy infrastructure...

A shock therapy to break this vicious circle could be mass migration of rural people to big cities. Abandonment of the land. This is happening in many third world countries, where mega-cities and mega-slums are popping up everywhere. But it doesn't really alter the social and economic situation of these people. Moreover, if the farmers are leaving the land, who's going to produce food for the nation?

There's only one way, we think, and that's the introduction of local bioenergy systems. They are well suited for small-scale decentralised energy production, don't require expensive grid extensions, and they are based on agriculture, which is what farmers do as a profession.

Most of us know about this classic vicious circle, and that such small-scale, decentralised systems are the way to go. But it's important to repeat it once in a while.

Let's allow our poor CEO lament a bit further: "This makes viable businesses located in remote area, almost impossible to fund", he said but lamented the fact that "it is in remote areas that there is need to aggressively accelerate rural employment".

"We need a partnership in the development of rural businesses," lamented Dr Matsheka. He noted that there is not much synergy between CEDA and other parastatals mandated to serve the community. Dr Matsheka noted that BPC does not meet them half way when they need them most. Meanwhile, CEDA boss told journalists that in the past months, his office has recorded a decline in applications as In the past CEDA received more than 200 applications per month.

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Japan to redouble efforts to promote biofuels

Quicknote: bioenergy policies
The Mainichi Daily News reports that Japan's Environment Ministry has set long-term targets for promoting eco-friendly biofuels such as ethanol, biodiesel and biogas, that are made from renewable agricultural sources, calling for a 10 percent penetration in overall vehicle fuels by 2030. The ministry is poised to redouble its efforts to push the use of bioethanol, which is made from sugar cane, corn and other vegetables, in view of the reduction targets on greenhouse gas emissions set under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, with the first commitment period due to start in 2008.

Japan has lagged far behind such countries as Brazil and the United States in introducing biofuels. Commercial use of the fuels is eyed next year in some areas such as the southernmost prefecture of Okinawa, which is a major sugar cane producer.

The Environment Ministry aims to have 50 percent of all vehicle fuels in Japan contain 3-percent bioethanol (E3) by 2010 and to have all vehicle fuels contain 10-percent bioethanol by 2030. It also hopes to expand the use of biodiesel made from used edible vegetable oils. As we have noted earlier, Japan, however, will have to import biofuels from Brazil and other Asian nations to achieve those targets because of the low level of domestic production. We hope it also looks to Africa.
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